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Pamela Cole

Pamela Cole

Professor of Psychology

210 Moore Building
Office Phone: (814) 863-1746


  1. Ph. D., Pennsylvania State University, 1980


Research Interests

Pamela Cole studies emotional development in early childhood with a particular interest in emotion regulation (the ability to modulate one's emotional reactions). The ability to regulate emotions in effective and flexible ways plays a role in the development of social, emotional, and cognitive competencies in children. Moreover, difficulties in emotion regulation have implications for the development of psychopathology. In previous work, she has shown that typically developing preschoolers can (a) self-modulate anger, (b) self-generate positive emotions even if a situation is difficult, and (c) self-generate effective strategies for regulating emotion. She has also shown that children who have difficulty doing these things may be at risk for developing later psychopathology. Current work is designed to understand how little children become competent emotion regulators as preschoolers. The Development of Toddlers Study (DOTS) is an NIMH-funded longitudinal study following 120 children from age 18 months to age 48 months, examining how their own skills and personalities and various aspects of their parents' lives influence the development of awareness, effectiveness, and flexibility in preschool age emotion regulation. Also, Dr. Cole is continuing to study cultural variations in emotional development with an interest on the factors that comprise culture that then influence emotion regulation.

Cole, P. M., Tan, P. Z., Hall, S. E., & Crnic, K. A. (submitted). Temperament and expressive language as predictors of toddler behavior problems. Submitted for publication.

Cole, P. M., Luby, J., & Sullivan, M. W. (submitted). Emotions and the development of depressive disorders: The gap to be bridged. Submitted for publication.

Crnic, K. A., Reitz, E. B., & Cole, P. M. (submitted). Stress and the trajectory of parenting across the early preschool period. Submitted for publication.

Dennis, T. A., Wiggins, C. N., Cole, P. M., Myftaraj, L., Cushing, X., Zalewski, M., & Cohen, L. C. (submitted). Functional relations between preschool age children’s emotions and their regulatory behaviors.

Cole, P. M., Dennis, T. A., K. E. Smith-Simon, & L. H. Cohen. (accepted, pending revisions) Preschoolers’ emotion regulation strategy understanding: Relations with maternal socialization and child behavior. Social Development.

Dennis, T., Talih, M., Cole, P. M., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Mizuta, I. (in press). The socialization of autonomy and relatedness: Sequential verbal exchanges in Japanese and U.S. mother-preschooler dyads. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.

Cole, P. M., & Hall, S. E. (in press). Emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for psychopathology. In T. Beauchaine & S. Hinshaw (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.

Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E, & Radzioch, A. M. (in press). Emotional dysregulation and the development of serious misconduct. Invited chapter in S. Olson & A. Sameroff, Regulatory Processes in the Development of Behavior Problems: Biological, Behavioral, and Social-ecological Interactions. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cole, P. M., Dennis, T.A., Hall, S. E., & Martin, S. E. (in press). Emotion regulation and the early development of psychopathology. In M. Vandekerckhove, C. von Scheve, S. Ismer, S. Jung, & S. Kronast (Eds.), Regulating emotions: Social necessity and biological inheritance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Research Interests:

Clinical (Adult and Child):
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